Music Experiences

Foreign Language Researchers administered the Seashore Test of Musical Talent to 406 students enrolled in university foreign language classes. From the results, they concluded that the two most important factors on a student’s ability to learn a foreign language were the student’s English reading ability and tonal memory ability. Leutenegger, R.R., Mueller, T.H., and Wershow, I. (1964). Auditory factors in foreign language acquisition. Modern Language Journal, 22-31.
Foreign Language In 1961, Eterno studied the relationship between the study of instrumental music and a student’s ability to learn a foreign language. In doing so, the researcher evaluated the results of the Conn Musical Aptitude Test with the scores of the Foreign Language Pronunciation Test (Spanish). Eterno’s findings concluded that students who study instrumental music will be more successful in learning a foreign language. Eterno, J.A. (1961). Foreign language pronunciation and musical aptitude. Modern Language Journal, 168-170.
Foreign Language Results of this study show, “that music and songs can be an effective instructional supplement to teaching English grammar and vocabulary to second grade students. In the study the thirteen songs and three musical stories for the elementary level allowed students to learn with optimal results. The results of the experiment seemed to indicate that music and songs can be used to improve grammar and vocabulary skills for second language learners.” Cruz-Cruz, M. (2005). The effects of selected music and songs on teaching grammar and vocabulary to second-grade English language learners. (Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University
Foreign Language According to this mainly qualitative whole language first grade class study, students from the [music] integrated class Miller, B.A. (1995). Integrating elementary music instruction with a whole language first-grade classroom. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign). Dissertation Abstracts International, 57, 04, 1535A.
Foreign Language The purpose of the study, according to Lowe, “was to investigate whether the incorporation of a music program in the second-language classroom, with methodology based on similarities that exist between the structures of music and language, reinforced both the learning of music and the learning of a second language [French] Lowe, A.S. (1995). The effect of the incorporation of music learning into the second language classroom on the mutual reinforcement of music and language. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign). Dissertation Abstracts International, 57, 04, 1535A.
Foreign Language Findings suggest, according to Salcedo, “that the use of songs in the foreign language classroom may aid memory of text. The results evidenced that the occurrence of the din is increased with music, and therefore may be a more efficient way to stimulate language acquisition.” Salcedo, C. (2002). The effects of songs in the foreign language classroom on text recall and involuntary mental rehearsal. (Doctoral dissertation, Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College). Dissertation Abstracts International, 3069732.
General Learning The Norwegian Research Council for Science and Humanities found a correlation between high self-esteem, high cognitive competence scores, and high self-perception and an interest in music. The Council also found a relationship between musical interest and the desire to succeed in school. Lillemyr, O.F. (1983). Achievement motivation as a factor in self-perception. The Norwegian Research Council for Science and Humanities.
General Learning In 1981, Robitaille and O’Neal, of the Albuquerque, New Mexico school system, compared the basic skills scores of all students in the district who took musical instruction with the basic skills scores of the students who did not take music classes. The results indicated that the instrumental music students scored higher in all areas of the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills, especially in the areas of reading and language. Furthermore, the researchers found that the score increases continued to improve with additional musical training. Robitaille, J., and O’Neil, S. (1981). Why instrumental music in elementary schools? Phi Delta Kappan, p. 213.
General Learning Researchers tested the reasoning abilities of children at the age of three who had no prior musical training. They tested the same children again after three months of music lessons, finding that the children had greatly improved their reasoning abilities. The researchers accounted for this improvement by noting that the musical training triggered basic neural connections related to reasoning skills. Rauscher, F.H., Shaw, G.L., and Levine, K.N. (1994, August 12-16).Music and spatial task performance: a causal relationship. Presented at the American Psychological Association 102nd Annual Convention.
General Learning At the Institute for Experimental Audiology at the University of Münster, researchers found a relationship between a person’s musical training and his or her neural activity. According to the study, the greater the person’s musical background, the greater the portion of his or her brain is active during the musical process. This research proved for the first time that the brain has the ability to recognize itself; this finding allows for opportunities to research more extensively treatment for people who suffer neurological damage. The researchers also cited that the neural enhancement attached to musical training also connects to age. If a person gets involved in musical training early in life, he or she involves a larger number of brain cells in the musical process. Pantev, C., Oostenveld, R., Engelien, A., Ross, B., Roberts, L.E., and Hoke M. (23 April 1998). Increased auditory cortical representation in musicians. Nature, 811-814.
General Learning Malyarenko and other researchers found that listening to music for only an hour every day can change the way in which the brain is organized. They conducted an experiment in which four year-olds listened to classical music for one hour a day. Later, the same children received testing that showed their brains had greater coherence and were in the alpha state more often. Malyarenko, et al. (1996). Music alters children’s brainwaves. Human Physiology, 76-81.
General Learning Researchers suggest that the process of making music can lead to improved listening and memory skills. A study tested sixty college students for verbal memory. Of the students, those who had music training before the age of twelve recalled more information than did those who did not have early musical instruction. Chan, A.S., Ho, Y.C., and Cheung, M.C. (1998). Music training improves verbal memory. Nature, 128.
General Learning James Catterall, a professor of Education at the University of California at Los Angeles, investigated the relationship between music and overall academic achievement. He compared test scores of students from lower socioeconomic status who received music instruction in high school to test scores of students, from similar backgrounds, who did not receive any music instruction. Compared with the non-music group, the music group improved their math, reading, history, geography, and social skills. The study indicates that a curriculum that supports music instruction can enhance students’ learning abilities. Catterall, J.S., Chapleau, R., and Iwanaga, J. (1999). Involvement in the arts and human development. Champions of change: The impact of arts on learning. http://www.artsedge.kennedy- center.org/champions/
General Learning An international research team of scientists at Dartmouth College (2002), led by music psychologist Petr Janata, found that certain areas of the cortex were up to five percent larger in expert musicians than in people with little or no musical training. In musicians who started their training in early childhood, the neural bridge that links the brain’s hemispheres, termed the corpus callosum, was up to fifteen percent larger. A professional musician’s auditory cortex – the part of the brain associated with hearing – contains 130 percent more gray matter than that of nonmusicians. The study, published in the December 13, 2002 issue of Science, demonstrates that the abstract knowledge about the harmonic relationships in music inscribes itself on the human cortex, guiding expectations of how musical notes should relate to one another as they are played. The pattern in music literally becomes a pattern in the brain, showing a link between music theory and perception and brain function. Janata, P. (2002, December). The cortical topology of tonal structures underlying Western music. Science, 2167-2170.
General Learning Music serves as a mode for development in young children to cultivate intellectual, social and emotional skills, as well as motor, language and overall literacy abilities. “Music is a great organizer that helps the body and the mind work together.” The article also states music builds competency in memory and strengthens “the sounds and meanings of words.” Ciervo, L. A. & Lerner, C. (2002). Getting in tune: the powerful influence of music on young children’s development. Zero to Three.
General Learning According to the author this study looked at “there is a significant difference in achievement patterns of [high school] students who participate in instrumental music and those who do not participate in instrumental music, and found that participation in instrumental music makes a difference.” Underwood, E. B. (2000). An analysis of the achievement patterns of high school students who participate in instrumental music and those who do not participate in instrumental music. Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champagne. Dissertation Abstracts International, 61 (05), 1735A.
General Learning According to news website Science Daily, a new Northwestern University study is the “first to provide concrete evidence that playing a musical instrument significantly enhances the brainstem’s sensitivity to speech sounds. This finding has broad implications because it applies to sound encoding skills involved not only in music but also in language.” Science Daily. (2007). Music training ‘tunes’ human auditory system. Retrieved April 9, 2007 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/03/070312152003.htm
General Learning The relationship between participation and achievement in music and achievement in, Math, English and Biology were investigated using data from standardized testing in those subject areas. Conducted over three consecutive years, music participation was correlated with higher academic achievement, particularly in Math and Science. This study, conducted by Peter Gouzouasis and the University of British Columbia, supports the view that music participation encourages academic merit in Math, English, and Science. Gouzouasis, P. (2006). The relationship between achievement and participation in music. University of British Columbia.
General Learning This study provided “mood calming” background music in a special class for children with emotional and behavioral difficulties. According to the research, “findings indicated a significant improvement in behavior and mathematics performance for all 10 of the children, with effects most noticeable for children with problems related to constant stimulus seeking and over activity. Improved cooperation and reduced aggression were also found.” Hallam, S. & Price, J. (1998). Can the use of background music improve the behavior and academic performance of children with emotional and behavioral difficulties? British Journal of Special Education, 25, 2, 88-91.
General Learning Kluball’s study investigated the link between instrumental music instruction and academic achievement for the senior class of Lee County High School in Leesburg, Georgia. Significant links were found among the number of years of band instruction and higher academic achievement as measured by the Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) Mathematics and Science exams. Kluball, J. L. (2000). The relationship of instrumental music instruction and academic achievement for the senior class of 2000 at Lee County High School, Leesburg, Georgia. Doctoral dissertation, University of Sarasota. Dissertation Abstracts International, 61, 11, 4320A.
General Learning An East Texas State University study by Daryl Erick Trent revealed that “(1) high school senior students who have participated in a program of instrumental music instruction in grades 6 through 12 score significantly higher in math on standardized tests than do students involved in non-music U.I.L. activities. (2) High school senior students who have participated in a program of instrumental music instruction in grades 6 through 12 score significantly higher in language arts on standardized tests than do students involved in non-music U.I.L. activities. (3) High school senior students who have participated in a program of instrumental music instruction in grades 6 through 12 score significantly higher in math and language arts than do students involved in non-music U.I.L. activities and students not involved in any school related extra-curricular activity.” Trent, D. E. (1996). The impact of instrumental music education on academic achievement. Doctoral dissertation, East Texas State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57, 07, 2933A.
General Learning According to Yoon, “music education is believed to deserve the status as an equally significant core subject. A review of the literature demonstrates the benefits of music education, discussing the influence of music on the child’s brain development, academic performance, and practical life skills.” Yoon, J. N. (2000). Music in the classroom: its influence on children’s brain development, academic performance, and practical life skills. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED442707.
General Learning This study, “compared the academic profiles of high school instrumental music students to high school students with no participation in music instruction.”Results showed, “that positive trends in academic achievement and attendance developed in favor of the experimental [instrumental music students] group over a critical five-year period, and that long-term participation in instrumental music programs coincided with significant increases in academic success.” Zanutto, D. R. (1997). The effect of instrumental music instruction on academic achievement (high school students). Doctoral dissertation, The University of California at Davis. Dissertation Abstracts International, 58, 10, 3871A.
General Learning Through this study, Morrison asserts that, “by and large, the students we teach in the music classrooms, rehearsal rooms, and football fields demonstrate academic behaviors above and beyond many of their counterparts outside the music curriculum.” Morrison, S. J. (1994). Music students and academic growth. Music Educators Journal, 81, 2, 33-36.
General Learning A Harvard-based study has found that children who study a musical instrument for at least three years outperform children with no instrumental training – not only in tests of auditory discrimination and finger dexterity (skills honed by the study of a musical instrument), but also on tests measuring verbal ability and visual pattern completion (skills not normally associated with music). The study, published October 29, 2008 in the online, open-access journal PLOS ONE – Publishing science, accelerating research; Published: October 29, 2008; Marie Forgeard, Andrea Norton, and Gottfried Schlaug, Ellen Winner
General Learning Music participation, defined as music lessons taken in or out of school and parents attending concerts with their children, has a positive effect on reading and mathematic achievement in early childhood and adolescence. Darby E. Southgate and Vincent Roscigno of Ohio State University reviewed two nationally representative data sources to analyze patterns of music involvement and possible effects on mathematics and reading performance for both elementary and high school students. Music is also positively associated with academic achievement in the study, particularly during the high school years. Social Science Quarterly (Volume 90, No. 1, March 2009)
Mathematics J. Maltester found that increased music instruction leads to increased math scores. Maltester, J. (1986, January). Music: the social and academic edge.Thrust, 25-27.
Mathematics In 1993, with the aid of the Department of Education’s National Center for Education Statistic’s 12,000 student interviews, researchers noted a direct relationship between success in mathematics and instruction in instrumental music. Through analysis of over 1,000 students, they found that students who study music take more math classes than students who do not study music. Manthei, M., and Smith, T.M. (1993). The effects of instrumental music participation on math achievement. The University of Kansas.
Mathematics Researchers indicate that playing the piano leads to increased spatial awareness and the ability to think ahead (both of which are important in mathematics). One group of students played a math video game and improved their spatial-proportional skills and their math scores. However, the group that had experience with the piano scored an additional 15% above the video game group that received no musical instruction. Graziano, A., Peterson, M., and Shaw, G. (1999). Enhanced learning of proportional math through music training and spatial-temporal training. Neurological Research.
Mathematics Researchers from the Mind Institute evaluated the effects on second grade students of the Music Spatial-temporal (MST) Math Program. Listening to music produced activity in the right frontal and left temporal lobes of the brain, which resulted in increased abilities to perform spatial-temporal functions used in mathematics. MST allowed students to improve their mathematics skills through music, which helped students to use the brain’s ability to make mental images and “[think] ahead in space and time.” Students who participated in the program, especially economically disadvantaged students, showed dramatic increases in mathematics scores. Participants in the second grade could perform fourth grade mathematics problems after one year in the program. The Mind Institute. (2002). Data from 1,283 2nd graders in our Music Spatial-temporal (MST) Math Program during school year 2000-2001 provide insights leading to powerful new features and opportunities for future research. Retrieved April 26, 2004 from http://www.mindinstitute.net/MIND3/downloads/2002%20 Results%20Special%20Report.pdf.
Mathematics The researcher found that using music in the classroom intensifies learning. Music and dance provide an opportunity for positive social interaction and singing cultivates understanding of the sound and rhythm of language. According to James, “Exposing children to the patterns of different kinds of music helps them to recognize patterns in mathematics. Background music in the classroom reduces stress and motivates learning.” James, A. R. (2000). When I listen to music. Young Children, 55, 3, 36-37.
Mathematics A research study at the University of California, Irvine found that after six months of piano lessons, preschoolers performed 34% higher on spatial- temporal testing than those who received no training and those who received computer training. (February 1997). Neurological Research.
Mathematics Researcher Whitehead investigated the relationship between music instruction and math achievement between middle and high school students in the classroom. According to the study, students who received music instruction on a daily basis for 20 weeks showed a higher level of significant gain in mathematics scores than the other two groups (one group had music class once a week for 20 weeks, the other group received no music instruction). Whitehead, B.J. (2001). The effect of music-intensive intervention on mathematics scores of middle and high school students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Capella University. (Doctoral dissertation, Capella University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 62, 08, 2710A.
Mathematics Through the use of the congo drum students learned to perform three mathematically disparate rhythms to explore the notion of ratios. Stevens, A.C., Sharp, J.M., & Nelson, E. (2001). The intersection of two unlikely worlds: Ratios and drums. Teaching Children Mathematics, 7 (6), 376-386.
Mathematics Shilling asserts, “embedding music activities naturally into children Shilling, W.A. (2002). Mathematics, music, and movement: Exploring concepts and connections. Early Childhood Education Journal, 29 (3), 179-184.
Mathematics This study offers, “activities related to the use of sound according to pitch to expand the concept of serial order and information on learning about ratio through orchestration.” Johnson, G.L. & Edelson, R.J. (2003). Integrating music and mathematics in the elementary classroom. Teaching Children Mathematics, 9 (8), 474-479.
Reading and Language Arts In 1967, Edwin Ara Movsesian sought to establish a correlation between teaching music skills to students who were acquiring basic reading skills and others who were developing advanced reading comprehension and vocabulary. In his experiment, he exposed some students to music reading skills along with regular reading instruction, while other students received the standard reading instruction. He found that the students who received instruction, as a group, performed better on standardized tests with higher scores in reading comprehension, reading vocabulary, and oral reading. From pre- and post-tests on the California Achievement Test (Reading), the Gray Oral Reading Test, and the Survey of Primary Reading Development, Movsesian concluded that music skills correlated positively with improved reading skills. Additionally, Movsesian found that the differences in the students who received the music instruction were specific to grade levels. First grade students had higher scores in reading comprehension. Children in second grade performed significantly better in both reading vocabulary and reading comprehension. Third grade students performed better in oral reading, but not in other areas of reading. Movsesian, E.A. (1967). The influence of teaching music reading skills on the development of basic reading skills in the primary grades. Unpublished dissertation, University of Southern California.
Reading and Language Arts In a dissertation (1959), Friedman found that fifth grade students who had the ability to play musical instruments had better reading comprehension skills than those students who did not play musical instruments. Music students demonstrated higher competence in predicting, memory, listening, recall, and comprehension. Friedman, B. (1959). An evaluation of the achievement in reading and arithmetic of pupils elementary schools instrumental music classes. University Microfilms, Inc.
Reading and Language Arts Diana Long Nicholson, in 1972, sought to determine the relationship between the study of music and improved reading skills in students with developmental delays. Her study showed that the students with musical experience scored higher in areas such as letter recognition. Nicholson concluded that improved letter recognition and reading skills of late developing learners result from experience with music. Nicholson, D.L. (1972). Music as an aid to learning. New York University.
Reading and Language Arts When teaching third grade students to play stringed instruments, Pelletier noticed an increase in their abilities to read. After conducting a study, he concluded that when a student learns to play a musical instrument as he or she begins to read, that student will improve his or her reading ability. Pelletier, H. (1965). An investigation of the relationship between training in instrumental music and selected aspects of language growth in third grade children. Arizona State University.
Reading and Language Arts In 1988, Ciepluch studied the correlation of the practice of music sightreading and overall reading achievement. The study showed a significant positive correlation between a student’s sightreading ability and his or her reading level. Ciepluch, G.M. (1988). Sightreading achievement in instrumental music performance, learning gifts, and academic achievement: a correlational study. The University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Reading and Language Arts In 1975, Hurwitz, Wolff, Bortnick, and Kokas studied the relationship between a Kodály-based music curriculum and the reading ability of children at the elementary level. The researchers concluded that children who receive instruction in music score higher on reading tests than those students who do not have experience with music. Hurwitz, I., Wolff, P.H., Bortnick, B.C., and Kokas, K. (1975). Nonmusical effects of the Kodály Music Curriculum in primary grade children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 3.
Reading and Language Arts In 1967 in Athens, Georgia, Maze analyzed musical ability scores and reading achievement of first grade students. Maze noted a significant positive correlation between reading achievement and scores on a modified version of the Seashore Test of Musical Ability. Further, she concluded that the two skills are directly related. Maze, N.M. (1967). A study of the correlations between musicality and reading achievement at first grade level in Athens, Georgia. University of Georgia.
Reading and Language Arts In 1990, Wood analyzed the scores of 7,500 students enrolled in a medium-sized university on the Nelson Denny Reading Test. When comparing the reading scores of music major students with non-music major students, Wood found that the music students had the highest reading scores of any major. Wood, P.H. (1990). The comparative academic abilities of students in education and in other areas of a multi-focus university. Unpublished.
Reading and Language Arts Turnipseed, in 1976, conducted a study in which first grade students were put in either a control group of students who received instruction in critical reading only or an experimental group in which students who received instruction in listening skills using classical music. The children in the experimental group received significantly higher scores on reading and language arts tests than the children in the control group. The students who participated in the classical music listening also received higher grades in reading in the classroom. Turnipseed, J.P. (1976, November). The effects of participation in structured classical music education programs on the total development of first grade children. Mid-South Educational Research Conference.
Reading and Language Arts In 1984, Karimer studied the relationship between pitch and rhythm activities and distinguishing between like initial and final phonemes. She assigned immigrants from Southeast Asia to either a control or experimental group. The experimental group received song instruction that used English words; the control group did not receive song instruction. At the end of the instruction, the experimental group increased their scores more than the control group. Karimer, L. (1984).Can Southeast Asian students learn to discriminate between English phonemes more quickly with the aid of music and rhythm? Unpublished.
Reading and Language Arts Researchers from the University of North Texas studied the effects of music listening on vocabulary review. Two groups of college students reviewed twenty-five vocabulary words; one group heard no music, while the other group listened to Handel’s Water Music. Students from the group that listened to Handel scored significantly higher than students from the other group. Stein, B., Hardy, C. A., and Totten, H. (1984). The use of music and imagery to enhance and accelerate information retention. Journal of the Society for Accelerative Learning & Teaching.
Reading and Language Arts The Relationship between Music and Reading in Beginning Readers, “Investigates the relationship of both phonemic and musical sound discrimination to reading ability in children in their first year at school [and notes the] importance of phonemic awareness in the development of reading skills.” Lamb, S. J., & Gregory, A. H. (1993). The Relationship between Music and Reading in Beginning Readers. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 13, 1, 19-27.
Reading and Language Arts This study, “explored the effect of different kinds of music on children’s writing content. Nineteen students from a second grade class in Charlottesville, Virginia, participated in 10 15-minute writing sessions, accompanied in each session by one type of background music (classical, jazz, popular, or country) or by silence. All writing was analyzed for tone, consistency, and number of words. Results showed that: (1) students wrote more words under the classical music condition; (2) there were fewer inconsistent writings when listening to jazz; (3) negative writings were greater in number for all music types than for no music condition; and (4) Top-40 music had a significant negative effect on students’ writing, perhaps attributable to students’ familiarity with it.” Koppelman, D. and Imig, S. (1995). The effect of music on children’s writing content. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED383002).
Reading and Language Arts According to the article, “This report describes a program to enhance spelling word retention through the use of background music. Teachers employed background music in order to promote higher student achievement in spelling. Post intervention data indicated an improvement in students’ spelling word retention. Spelling test scores and report card grades indicated a positive academic growth. Music enabled the students to concentrate, relax and revisualize spelling words.” Anderson, S., Henke J., McLaughlin, M., Ripp, M., & Tuffs, P. (2000). Using background music to enhance memory and improve learning. M.A. Action Research Project, Saint Xavier University  and IRI/Skylight.
Reading and Language Arts Music and reading attitudes improved when music was integrated into reading instruction in 4th and 5th grade North Carolina classes but achievement in these subject did not change. Andrews, L. J. (1997). Effects of an integrated reading and music instructional approach on 5th grade students
Reading and Language Arts According to a University of California, Los Angeles investigation of a U.S. Department of Education database keeping record of more than 25,000 students over ten years, students involved in music generally tested higher in reading proficiency exams and standardized tests than those who had no musical involvement. The study also notes higher scores for musicians across socioeconomic groups. Edward B. Fiske. (1999). Involvement in the arts and human development. Champions of Change: The Impact of the Arts on Learning. President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities & AEP.
Reading and Language Arts According to McGovern, “The objective of this research project was to observe some effects music has on the elementary classroom. This study was conducted with the third grade students and the teacher explored strategies in which music might enhance the learning environment. Some strategies that were implemented included the use of rhythm spelling and using song and movements to help remember key concepts. Background music during instruction was employed. The teacher implemented music to change the students’ state of mind. Finally, motivation was explored through music in the classroom. Results suggested that the students enjoyed the varied uses of music in the classroom. Motivating music, the clapping rhythm, and Rhythm Spelling were cited as particularly useful and appreciated by students.” McGovern,A. M. (2000). Working in harmony: some effects of music in the classroom. M.A. Action Research Project, Saint Xavier University  and IRI/Skylight.
Reading and Language Arts Montgomery sought to answer: Do “the use of locomotor movement activities while singing action songs in the kindergarten music classroom influence test scores on the melodic pitch discrimination test in music and the picture-word recognition test in language arts reading-readiness? This research study focused on movement education as a catalyst for interdisciplinary teaching by the early childhood music specialist in music and language arts reading-readiness Montgomery, A. J. H. R. (1997). The influence of movement activities on achievement in melodic pitch discrimination and language arts reading readiness skills of selected kindergarten music classes. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Southern Mississippi). Dissertation Abstracts International, 58 (09), 3453A.
Reading and Language Arts The relationship between musical ability and literacy skills shows, “musical skills is a valuable additional strategy for assisting children with reading difficulties.” Douglas, S. & Willatts, P. (1994). The relationship between musical ability and literacy skills. Journal of Research in Reading, 17, 2, 99
Reading and Language Arts The researcher designed, “a developmental language arts model (SAMPLE: Suggested Activities of Music and Poetry for Language Enrichment), to compare the cognitive results of the SAMPLE classroom to the traditional classroom, and to describe behaviors of children and the responses of children and their parents to the SAMPLE classroom Hudspeth, C.C. (1986). The cognitive and behavioral consequences of using music and poetry in a fourth grade language arts classroom. (Doctoral dissertation, Texas Woman
Science In 1997, researchers at the University of California Irvine and the University of Wisconsin found that preschoolers who received piano lessons experienced significant improvements in their abilities to reason scientifically and mathematically. Also, the researchers noted that these improvements were not limited to playing the piano, but could happen with any musical experience. Shaw, Rauscher, Levine, Wright, Dennis, and Newcomb. (1997, February). Music training causes long-term enhancement of preschool children’s spatial-temporal reasoning. Neurological Research, volume 19.
Science There is brief mention of how science and music is integrated in the primary classroom. Dudley, L., & Pecka, W. (1994). Math, science, whole language

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