All Fine Arts

Experiences and Studies

Foreign Language This is article is a summary of the report, The Complete Curriculum: Ensuring a Place for the Arts and Foreign Languages in America’s Schools. It highlights the state of arts and foreign language instruction across the United States and the overall benefits of arts and language study. Also included are ten recommendations for state policymakers to ensure that the arts and foreign languages are not lost, and to position both as integral parts of the core curriculum. National Association of State Boards of Education. (2003). The complete curriculum: ensuring a place for the arts and foreign languages in America’s schools: summary, recommendations. Alexandria, VE: author.
General Learning According to a study conducted by OMG, Inc., a research and consulting firm in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, when students attend a school that is focused on the arts, they generally score higher on tests than a student who attends another school in the same locality. Thomas, J.B. (1992, October). The lost arts: why arts education is crucial for kids. Better Homes and Gardens.
General Learning After Elm Elementary School in Milwaukee incorporated the arts into its curriculum, the school, once in the bottom 10% of the district, scored first of 103 schools in academic performance. Oddleifson, E. (1991, Winter). The case for the arts: by cutting back on arts to strengthen their basic core curricula, schools may be taking a giant leap backward. The Learning Revolution, 46.
General Learning Eliot Elementary School in Needham, Massachusetts introduced art into its curriculum in 1983. Subsequently, the typical third grade student’s test scores placed in the 97th to 99th percentile. Oddleifson, E. (1991, Winter). The case for the arts: by cutting back on arts to strengthen their basic core curriculum, schools may be taking a giant leap backward. The Learning Revolution, 46.
General Learning According to a report by Burton, Horowitz, and Abeles, through the arts, a student improves creativity, gains a sense of balanced emotions, betters his or her problem-solving skills, gains a sense of empowerment and self, becomes a better learner, and is able to increase concentration. Burton, J., Horowitz, R., and Abeles, H. (1999). Learning in and through the arts: curriculum implications. In E. Fiske (Ed.), Champions of change: the impact of the arts on learning. [Online report]. Washington, DC: The Arts Education Partnership and the President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities.
General Learning Dr. Howard Gardner, a Harvard University psychologist, lays out the framework for seven different intelligences in his book Frames of Mind: Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Of the seven intelligences – linguistic, musical, logical/mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, and the personal intelligences – American schools only address the linguistic and logical/mathematical intelligences. However, most educators feel that fostering a student’s natural intellectual strengths and interests will, in turn, lead to the enrichment and development of the other types of intelligences. Gardner, Howard. (March 1993). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. Basic Books.
General Learning The 1988 National Educational Longitudinal Survey tracked the progress of 25,000 middle and high school students over a period of ten years. James Catterall, a professor of education at the University of California at Los Angeles, used the Survey to argue that students who took at least two art classes per week and participated in the arts outside of the school curriculum outperformed other students on standardized tests, including subjects such as math, reading, and history. Furthermore, 66.8% of eighth grade students with experience in the arts scored in the top half on the standardized tests, while only 42.7% of other students scored similarly. Catterall, J.S. (July 1998). Does experience in the arts boost academic achievement? A response to Eisner. Art Education, 7- 15.
General Learning Researchers found that students who, in arts education, learn self-regulation skills – asking pertinent questions, setting goals, self-observation, reaction, efficacy, standard setting, etc. – can apply those skills to academic studies and achieve improved performance. In arts environments, students are encouraged to take greater responsibility for their thinking. Educators of the arts motivate students to participate in the goal-setting process and lead students to evaluate themselves and others. Baum, S., Owen, S., and Oreck, B. (1997.) Transferring individual self-regulation processes from arts to academics. Arts Education Policy Review, 32, 39.
General Learning Researchers studied preschoolers, labeled as disadvantaged, to support the incorporation of visual arts in the school curriculum. A cross-cultural study observed 215 pre-kindergartners and 228 kindergarteners from Tel Aviv, Israel and Columbus, Ohio. Some of the students received art tools without art instruction; the other students received art instruction, including discussion, observation, touch, and technical training. The researchers found that instruction in the arts results in improved cognition. Mooney, R., and Smilansky, S. (1973). An experiment in the use of drawing to promote cognitive development in disadvantaged preschool children in Israel and the United States. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED408952.
General Learning Leroux and Grossman studied a Chicago elementary school; its student body consisted of 84% of the students coming from families below the poverty line and 30% not speaking English. When the students did not receive arts instruction, only 38% of the students were reading at grade level, and only 49% in math were at grade level. Then, the school added art to its curriculum. Now, 60% of the students are reading at grade level, and 68% in math are at grade level. Leroux, C. and Grossman, R. (1999, October 21). Arts in the schools paint masterpiece: Higher scores. Chicago Tribune, A-1.
General Learning At a conference where the proceedings went to education, arts, and youth funders, Elliot Eisner presented his findings on how students learn life lessons from the fine arts. He began by noting the importance of qualitative relationships in both visual arts—do these colors go together?—and science—does this theory conflict with the information we already know? Students also learned from the arts that there is the possibility of more than one right answer and that it is important to investigate a problem, whether in a science experience or in a painting, from multiple perspectives. After receiving practice in the arts, students can better problem solve, recognizing that problems can have a variety of solutions. These findings that connect learning in the arts to learning in other disciplines are only a few among many Eisner lists. Eisner, E. (2000, January). Ten lessons the arts teach. Learning and the arts: crossing boundaries, a conference.
General Learning Though the Annenberg Challenge aims to implement wide-ranging school reforms, one area of interest is to implement curriculum that motivates students. In order to attain this goal, some schools decided to improve their curricula with arts instruction—Transforming Education through the Arts Challenge (TETAC). Schools participating in TETAC have used the arts to reinforce learning in other disciplines, including exploring mathematical symmetries through dance, investigating M.C. Escher’s works to study fractals, studying Frank Lloyd Wright’s architecture to learn geometry, and examining molecules through dramatic role play. 40% of the students at this specific school—Lusher Elementary School—live in households below the poverty line. After employing TETAC, the school is one of the top fifteen in Louisiana and first in Orleans Parish. Cervone, B. (2000, April). Students at work: a portfolio from the Annenberg Challenge. Annenberg Challenge, Annenberg Institute for School Reform.
General Learning The Center for Arts Education in New York City was founded in 1996 to enhance arts education, restoring and maintaining the arts in the City’s public schools. Program analysts sought to find evidence of program effectiveness, using student learning as the main factor to judge. They found the qualitative data more telling than the quantitative date. For instance, teachers and principals saw changes in the following areas: performance in other disciplines, engagement, attendance, connecting of lessons from differing subject areas, quality of work, and behavior. Also, students who participated in the program experienced increased standardized test scores, earned more GEDs and diplomas, and improved their attentions to mathematics and science. Baker, T., Bevan, B., and Admon, N. (2001, November). Final evaluation on the Center for Arts Education’s New York City Partnerships for Arts and Education Program. Education Development Center/Center for Children and Technology.
General Learning Coming Up Taller documents the implementation of arts and humanities teachings throughout the country and the impact, including student achievement, the programs had on students. One finding involved schools with integrated educational models, such as the Duke Ellington School of the Arts. In schools such as this one, students have experienced increased student achievement. Also, educators who hypothesized the benefits of the arts and used the arts to supplement learning in more traditional subject areas like history and science found increased student interest and performance. In addition, the report cited numerous studies that support the idea that student participation in the arts leads to the development of higher-order thinking skills and increased problem-solving abilities. Other such studies found relationships between arts education and higher standardized test scores and improved abilities to think across disciplines. Weitz, J.H. (1996, April). Coming up taller: arts and humanities programs for children and youth at risk. President’s Committee on the Arts and Humanities with the Americans for the Arts.
General Learning SPECTRA+ is a program in some elementary schools in Ohio. The program utilizes a curriculum that places equal emphasis on the fine arts and other traditional subject areas. Students receive one hour of fine arts instruction daily from artists in-residence for music, drama, visual arts, dance, and media art. Teachers also receive professional development in the arts. Researchers evaluated SPECTRA+, comparing its participants to a full control group that had a traditional curriculum and a modified control group that had a whole language program but not arts. Based on pretests and posttests, researchers found that SPECTRA+ students made more advances in the areas of creative thinking, arts appreciation, and math comprehension. Results for reading comprehension were mixed. A longitudinal study showed that students who had made gains in creativity, self esteem, arts appreciation, and some reading and math maintained those gains and continued to show improvement. Luftig, R. T. (1994). The schooled mind: Do the arts make a difference? An empirical evaluation of the Hamilton Fairfield SPECTRA+ Program, 1992-93. Oxford, OH: Miami University.
General Learning The Music Center of Los Angeles County, Education Division (MCED) sponsors artists in-residence in the areas of dance, drama, music, visual arts, and creative writing. Program components include a minimum of twelve arts activities in three months, teacher training on integrating the arts, family involvement, a student performance or event at the end of the program, and cooperation between teachers and artists to plan extended lessons. Students reported better higher-order thinking, communication, and socialization skills. Teachers and artists also reported observing these improvements. Report grades showed significant improvement following participation in the program. Redfield, D. L. (1990). Evaluating the broad educational impact of an arts education program: The case of the Music Center of Los Angeles County’s Artists in-residence program. Los Angeles, CA: Center for the Study of Evaluation, University of California at Los Angeles.
General Learning The Los Angeles Unified School District’s Humanitas program began in 1986 and had included 3,500 students in 29 high schools by 1990. Because of teacher interest, Humanitas was also expanded to include middle schools. Humanitas, an arts component, emphasizes in-depth study of art as related to other subject areas like social studies and literature. The program also provides students with direct arts experiences, including concerts, theatre performances, and museum visits. Another important aspect is professional development, including a one-week training program and teacher centers that provide on-going services and support. Research shows that students who participated in Humanitas wrote more sophisticated essays with low-achieving students making gains similar to high-achieving students. Humanitas students exhibited higher class attendance and lower drop-out rates than students who did not participate. Teachers also felt better prepared to meet the needs of diverse students, including high achievers and limited English proficient students. Aschbaker, P., & Herman, J. (1991). The Humanitas program evaluation, 1990-91. Los Angeles, CA: Center for the Study of Evaluation, University of California at Los Angeles.
General Learning The Arts Partners program began in New York City in 1984 and provides artists to work in schools for ten weeks. Districts develop program goals, identify target schools, and are committed to continue arts education after the ten-week program. To be successful, the program suggests that the resident artist must have artistic expertise and effective instructional strategies, present students with challenging tasks, and receive adequate time for planning and art making. Students used the knowledge they had obtained in traditional subjects and applied it to the content of their art works, which indicated that students were able to transfer knowledge from other subject areas to art. This transfer allowed students to solidify their content knowledge in the traditional subject areas through the practice of art. Fineberg, C. (1991). Arts and cognition: A study of the relationship between Arts Partners programs and the development of higher level thinking processes in elementary and junior high school students. New York, NY: C.F. Associates and the Arts Partners Council.
General Learning From 1995-1999 researchers evaluated North Carolina’s A+ Program, an arts based school reform model implemented in 25 schools across the state in 1995. Key findings included increased attendance by students as well as improved attitudes and behavior resulting from enriched academic environments created by the program. Parents also demonstrated more involvement with the pilot schools and increased awareness of curriculum. North Carolina A+ Schools and the Thomas S. Kenan Institute for the Arts at the North Carolina School of the Arts. (2001). North Carolina A+ Schools Program: Schools that work for everyone; Executive summary. Winston-Salem, NC: North Carolina A+ Schools Program, 2001.
General Learning According to this dissertation, “Although attempts have been made to justify fine arts education in elementary schools on the basis of various educational and social benefits, the greatest benefit may lie in arts participation’s impact on the child’s emotional intelligence Clark, S. (2006). The relationship between fine arts participation and the emotional intelligence of fifth-grade elementary students. Doctoral dissertation, Brigham Young University.
General Learning The November 1998 issue of Educational Leadership states, “Arts instruction enhances overall neurological development. The motor skills and sensory-motor capabilities necessary in all walks of life are developed through arts instruction. Robert Sylwester, professor emeritus of education at the University of Oregon provides a succinct, eloquent description of these processes Sylwester, R. (1998). Art for the brain’s sake. Educational Leadership, 56, 3, 31-35.
General Learning Matthews investigated, “the impact of an integrated fine arts curriculum–consisting of dance, music, drama, and visual arts–on the reading performance of third, fourth, and fifth grade students in one elementary magnet school in Oklahoma. The performance of these students (n = 110) was compared to that of a group of students (n = 142) enrolled in a similar school with a traditional curriculum. The reading performance measures used consisted of scores obtained on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills and the reading section of the Oklahoma Criterion-Referenced Test, which is based upon the state’s standards for reading Matthews, J.L. (2001). Impact of fine arts integration on third, fourth, and fifth graders
General Learning Schuler, “Asserts that study of the arts fosters the type of divergent and creative thinking needed in both the business world and society. He proposes that teachers work together to develop schedules of eight instructional periods allowing for more arts instruction and considers requiring arts courses for graduation from high school.” Shuler, S. C. (1996). Why high school students should study the arts. Music Educators Journal, 83, 1, 22-26.
General Learning The article explores, “Literature pertaining to self-esteem, self-concept and the alleged transferability of personal, social and cognitive learning via opportunities to be creative is examined in detail, as is the work of those wishing to re-promote the arts for art’s sake. More widely, the article explores the arts participation literature that emerges from a variety of contexts beyond schools such as neighbourhood renewal and community regeneration initiatives; practice on both sides of the Atlantic is investigated. Finally, opportunities for advancement of research in the field are outlined.” Boyes, L. C. & Reid, I. (2005). What are the benefits for pupils participating in arts activities? The view from the research literature. Research in Education, 73, 1-14.
General Learning Educating for Creativity: Bringing the Arts and Culture into Asian Education presents the outcomes of two conferences: Asian Regional Symposia on Arts Education, Measuring the Impact of Arts in Education, Hong Kong SAR, China (2004) and Transmissions and Transformations: Learning Through the Arts in Asia New Delhi, India (2005). The report recommends the Arts-in-Education approach, where the arts are used as tools to educate students about other subjects. UNESCO. (2005). Educating for Creativity: Bringing the Arts and Culture into Asian Education.
General Learning A framework in this book is presented to identify how the arts create both private and public value and highlights how both instrumental and intrinsic benefits are created through the arts. McCarthy, K., Ondaatje, E. H., & Zakaras, L. (2004). Gifts of the muse: reframing the debate about the benefits of the arts. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.
General Learning After researching for three years, Third Space: When Learning Matters  describes the transformation in ten primary and secondary schools serving economically disadvantaged students in the United States. It discusses how and why the arts have made possible the schools to succeed where others often fail. Deasy, R. & Stevenson, L. (2005). Third space: when learning matters. Washington, DC: Arts Education Partnership.
General Learning This article discusses appropriate art activities that can enrich development of the whole child. Art allows children to express powerful emotions, develop cognitive skills in a creative way, engage in a physical experience, and perceive a world of beauty. It also offers guidance to early childhood educators on how to create a dynamic art program. Feinburg, S. (2003). All about art inside and out!. Early Childhood Today, 17, 7.
General Learning This document is a compilation of studies by seven teams of leading researchers who describe powerful arts programs both in and outside of the schools and what might be done to replicate them. Studies included also help to explain the impact of the arts on learning. Researchers found that “learners can attain higher levels of achievement through their engagement with the arts. Moreover, one of the critical research findings is that the learning in and through the arts can help level the playing field for youngsters from disadvantaged circumstances.” Fiske, E. B. (2002). Champions of Change: The Impact of the Arts on Learning. Retrieved February 5, 2007 from http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/champions/pdfs/ChampsReport.pdf
General Learning Authentic Connections assists and supports educators in interdisciplinary work and to clarify how the arts can be taught with integrity through interdisciplinary content standards. It has been prepared for teachers in all disciplines, teaching artists, administrators, teacher educators at the college level, and parents. The Consortium of the National Arts Education Associations. (2002). Authentic Connections. Retrieved February 5, 2007 from http://www.naea-reston.org/pdf/INTERart.pdf
General Learning This brochure summarizes important and compelling rationale for integrating the arts in K-12 education. It is an effective advocacy tool for anyone who needs to demonstrate the arts are critical to education and learning. The National Assembly of State Arts Agencies. (Third printing, 1998). Eloquent Evidence: Arts at the Core of Learning. Retrieved February 5, 2007 from http://www.nasaa-arts.org/publications/eloquent.pdf
General Learning This report features an interview between Arkansas’ 41st governor, Mike Huckabee and Richard Deasy, director of the arts education partnership. It focuses upon Huckabee Education Commission of the States. (2004). Putting the Arts Front and Center. Retrieved February 5, 2007 from http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/54/67/5467.pdf
General Learning Researchers sought to answer the following: “Do children in arts-rich schools show more creativity and higher academic self concept than those in arts-poor schools? and Do arts-rich schools have different climates than arts-poor schools?” The report shows that students in arts-rich schools placed higher in creativity than arts-poor schools. Abeles, H., Burton, J., & Horowitz, R.(2000). Learning in and through the arts: the question of transfer. Studies in Art Education, 41, 3, 228-257.
General Learning To push for higher standards of learning, policymakers are currently eliminating arts programs, Jensen asserts. This book presents the irrefutable case, based on what is known about the brain and learning, for making the arts a core part of the basic curriculum and thoughtfully integrating them into every subject. Separate chapters address musical, visual, and kinesthetic arts in ways that reveal their influence on learning. Jensen, E. (2001). Arts with the brain in mind. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
General Learning This reports provides case studies describing successful arts education programs in US school districts including the processes they went through, support received and challenges faced in their respective communities. President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities and Arts Education Partnership. (1999). Gaining the arts advantage: lessons from school districts that value arts education. Retrieved April 12, 2007 from http://www.aep-arts.org/files/publications/GAAReport.pdf
General Learning The study, according to Baum and Owen, “found that artistically talented students engaged in more self-regulatory behaviors during classes in which the arts were integrated into the lesson.” Baum, S. & Owen, S. (1997). Using art processes to enhance academic self regulation. Paper presented at ArtsConnection National Symposium on Learning and the Arts: New Strategies for Promoting Student Success, New York.
General Learning Peter discusses the importance of an arts education in classrooms and schools for students with special educational needs (SEN). The author also makes the division between art for “therapeutic” needs and art therapy. Peter, M. (1998).
General Learning According to an analysis of Texas high schools and middle schools conducted by the Texas Coalition for Quality Arts Education, schools with higher levels of student participation in fine arts obtain higher academic ratings and have lower drop out rates, After analyzing the data on 864 campus academic ratings, attendance rates, drop out rates and fine arts course enrollment, the following was discovered: “(1) Academic Rating: campuses with a higher percentage of student enrollment in fine arts courses achieved higher academic ratings. (2) Student Drop out: campuses with a higher percentage of student enrollment in fine arts courses report lower drop out rates. (3) Student Attendance: campuses with a higher percentage of student enrollment in fine arts courses reported higher attendance rates.” Texas Coalition for Quality Arts Education & Texas Music Educators Association. (2007). Academic performance, drop out rates and attendance rates in Texas public schools correlated to fine arts course enrollment.
General Learning The study according to the author, “examined the relationship between the degree of involvement of Hispanic students in the arts, and creative thinking abilities, academic self-concept, and academic achievement in mathematics and reading Palos-Tuley, B. (2003). An examination of the relationship between fine arts experiences and creative thinking, academic self-concept, and academic achievement of Hispanic students in grades 3, 4, and 5 in selected south Texas schools. (Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 65 (01), 008A.
General Learning <p>In 2004, the Dana Arts and Cognition Consortium brought together cognitive neuroscientists from seven universities across the United States to study the question of why arts training has been associated with higher academic performance. The consortium reported findings that allow for a deeper understanding of the causal relationships between arts training and the brain Gazzaniga, Michael S. , Ph.D. (2008). Arts and Cognition Findings Hint at Relationships
Mathematics As a result of introducing arts to the curriculum, at St. Augustine School (K-8) in Bronx, New York, which was in danger of being closed, 98% of its students’ reading and math scores were at grade level. St. Augustine is one of only three public schools in metropolitan New York City to attain this level of student achievement. Oddleifson, E. (1991, Winter). The case for the arts: by cutting back on arts to strengthen their basic core curriculum, schools may be taking a giant leap backward. The Learning Revolution, 46.
Mathematics Researchers found that when a school includes the arts in its curriculum, its students experience improvement in reading, writing, and math scores. Milley, J., Buchen, L., Oderlund, A., and Mortarotti, J. (1983). The arts: an essential ingredient in education. California Council of Fine Arts Deans. Long Beach: the School of Fine Arts, California State University – Long Beach.
Mathematics The College Entrance Examination Board indicates that there is a current trend in the SAT scores of students with a fine arts background: they consistently receive higher scores than students who do not have arts experiences. The scores show that as students receive more arts coursework, their scores continue to increase. In 2002, a student who had less that half a year of arts courses averaged a score of 484 on the verbal section and a 502 on the math section—a composite score of 986; students who had studied the arts for more than four years averaged a score of 535 on the verbal section and a 541 on the math section—a composite score of 1076. The National Association for Music Education. (2002). Scores of students in the arts. Retrieved April 22, 2004, from http://www.menc.org/information/advocate/sat.html.
Mathematics According to The College Board, Profile of College-Bound Seniors National Report for 2000, 2001, and 2002, students who did not partake in art (art, dance, music or drama) received lower scored on their SAT math and verbal scores. Retrieved April 12, 2007 from http://www.naea-reston.org/pdf/SATscore.pdf
Mathematics Omniewski writes, “The purpose of this study was to determine whether a significant difference existed in mathematics achievement scores among an experimental group using an arts infusion approach (AI), a group using an innovative manipulative approach (IM), or a group using a traditional textbook approach (TT) Omniewski, R.A. (1999). The effects of an arts infusion approach on the mathematics achievement of second-grade students. (Doctoral dissertation, Kent State University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 60, 05, 1389A.
Reading and Language Arts As a result of introducing arts to the curriculum, at St. Augustine School (K-8) in Bronx, New York, which was in danger of being closed, 98% of its students’ reading and math scores were at grade level. St. Augustine is one of only three public schools in metropolitan New York City to attain this level of student achievement. Oddleifson, E. (1991, Winter). The case for the arts: by cutting back on arts to strengthen their basic core curriculum, schools may be taking a giant leap backward. The Learning Revolution, 46.
Reading and Language Arts Researchers found that when a school includes the arts in its curriculum, its students experience improvement in reading, writing, and math scores. Milley, J., Buchen, L., Oderlund, A., and Mortarotti, J. (1983). The arts: an essential ingredient in education. California Council of Fine Arts Deans. Long Beach: the School of Fine Arts, California State University – Long Beach.
Reading and Language Arts Learning to Read Through the Arts (LTRTA) is a program funded by New York City Public Schools and the Guggenheim Museum that began in 1971. Program evaluations since its introduction have shown significant academic improvement for participating students. LTRTA encourages collaboratives of reading teachers and arts teachers to develop integrated lesson plans and units to use in regular classroom instruction. The program also utilizes the visual, aural, tactile, and kinesthetic learning modalities. Teachers reported improvements in student academic, artistic, personal, and social skills. Research shows improved reading scores on the Degrees of Reading Power assessment and that 89% of limited English proficient (LEP) students who participated mastered the targeted reading skills. Office of Educational Research, New York City Board of Education. (1993). Chapter 1 Developer/Demonstration Program: Learning to Read through the Arts 1992-93. New York, NY: author.
Reading and Language Arts The Dallas ArtsPartners (AP) program gives all elementary students in Dallas Independent School District schools the chance to participate in programs that integrate the arts and culture into the curriculum. Teachers in AP classrooms receive training on how to integrate the arts programs. Researchers from the Annenberg Institute designed a study that uses multiple measures—the Iowa Test of Basic Skills, the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS), writing samples, and student interview and observation data—and is longitudinal, following two cohorts over multiple years. Findings indicate that disadvantaged and at-risk students show significant improvements in reading comprehension over the control group. When arts are integrated into writing experiences, the overall quality of the writing improves, including better organization, ideas, fluency, word choice, and distinctive style. Asian, Hispanic, and African American students demonstrated comparable achievement in writing skills as compared to all students. Student behavior also improved, especially among low-achieving students. Dallas ArtsPartners. (2004). Arts and cultural learning: Changing achievement and expectation. Dallas, TX: author.
Reading and Language Arts The researcher, Carolyn Hudspeth, designed a model language arts curriculum that integrated music. The Suggested Activities of Music and Poetry for Language Enrichment (SAMPLE) was used with low-achieving fourth graders. The SAMPLE group differed from the control group insofar as the participants received additional poetry and prose and participated in choral reading, singing, moving, rhyming, and dramatizing. The control group received instruction in the traditional manner. When given the California Achievement Test, the SAMPLE students scored significantly higher in the areas of language mechanics and total language. SAMPLE students also showed significant improvements on a writing test. Observers saw that as students became more engaged with the instructional material, their overall behavior improved. Parents also seemed happy with the SAMPLE program and felt that the integrated curriculum had provided positive experiences for their children. Hudspeth, C. C. (1986). The cognitive and behavioral consequences of using music and poetry in a fourth grade language arts classroom. Dissertation abstracts international, 47 (08), 2884. (UMI No. 8626486)
Reading and Language Arts The College Entrance Examination Board indicates that there is a current trend in the SAT scores of students with a fine arts background: they consistently receive higher scores than students who do not have arts experiences. The scores show that as students receive more arts coursework, their scores continue to increase. In 2002, a student who had less that half a year of arts courses averaged a score of 484 on the verbal section and a 502 on the math section—a composite score of 986; students who had studied the arts for more than four years averaged a score of 535 on the verbal section and a 541 on the math section—a composite score of 1076. The National Association for Music Education. (2002). Scores of students in the arts. Retrieved April 22, 2004, from http://www.menc.org/information/advocate/sat.html.
Reading and Language Arts According to Nan McDonald and Douglas Fisher, principles of teaching through the arts include the following: (1) outcomes should not change because teaching or assessment is nontraditional; (2) all possible arts and intelligences must be included; (3) teaching through the arts supports learning through the arts; (4) infusing the arts fosters understanding in “traditional” subjects; and (5) assessment must fit the mode of presentation. Reproducible worksheets and checklists for developing, evaluating, and implementing arts-related lesson plans also presented. Fisher, D. and McDonald, N. (2006). Teaching Literacy through the Arts. New York: The Guilford Press.
Reading and Language Arts Jerrold Ross, Director of the National Arts Education Research Center (NAERC) at New York University, stated, Craig, S. (1994). An arts education school reform strategy. Phi Delta Kappan, 75, 6,432-438.
Reading and Language Arts Youth and Community Development is a resource guide with video that shows how the arts present young people in community-based programs with the range of skills needed for academic and current and future job achievement, Heath and Smyth provide a number of examples of organizations that challenge traditional forms of education through collaborative and engaging learning environments. Heath, S. B. & Smyth, L. (1999) ArtShow: Youth and Community Development, A Resource Guide. Washington, D.C.: Partners for Livable Communities.
Social Studies The Galef Institute in Los Angeles, California, instituted the Different Ways of Knowing program that aimed to integrate arts instruction with social studies and other core subject instruction. The program includes a professional development component with a summer training institute and on-site coaching that shows teachers connections among the arts and the traditional disciplines. Researchers identified four urban partnerships with high at-risk student populations that had implemented the program for three years. The study looked at 920 elementary school students in 52 classrooms. Students who had participated in the program showed significant gains in the language arts and social studies, especially in the areas of writing and drawing assessments. Students also exhibited gains in positive attitude and motivation. Different Ways of Knowing classrooms were more interactive, and students initiated more discussion topics than in classrooms that did not use the program. Catteral, J. S. (1995). Different ways of knowing: 1991-94 national longitudinal study final report. Los Angeles, CA: The Galef Institute.
Social Studies According to Konrad, “This study investigated whether transformational principles derived from an empathy model, supplemented and strengthened with materials, processes, and activities such as art, music, poetry, collaborative learning and role playing, when made part of a middle school social studies curriculum, and put into the hands of trained teachers will: (1) increase students’ achievement in history, (2) promote prosocial. behavior, especially helping and sharing, (3) promote general empathy, and (4) reduce prejudice and racism, all necessary to the development of a democratic, civic and civil citizenry, and the development of student attitudes and understandings facilitating their success as empathic, and informed citizens Konrad, R.R. (1999). Empathy, art, and the social studies: The effect of an empathy based, arts enriched, United States history curriculum on middle school students (American History). (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles). Dissertation Abstracts International, 60 (07), 2352A.

Comments are closed.